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Design Support Organisation III  
Strategy for improving information capacity. The other strategy is to increase the capability of handling more information. Vertical Investment. The first method here is to invest in vertical systems. Here the decision level must invest in some mechanisms which can cope with the increasing information load. Providing more information to the decision makers are rarly the solution since they are already overloaded and the result of more information handling is stress. The increase of capacity in decision making could be to hire coordinators and an incident managers who has a knowledge for decision making in accordance with management. There are several factors for use in enhancing the vertical information system. Decision frequency How often is there a need for decisions. Scope of information need/ what kind of information is needed for making the decision Degree of formalization of the information flow to and from decision point. The capacity of the decision mechanism. The frequency of goal setting is affected of the corresponding environment such as when production support transports are scheduled, the urgency of the changes/ incidents. As the system becomes overloaded with exemptions it is more efficient to make a enw plan than to make incremental changes to the old one. So as the uncertainty and number of exemptions increases the shorter the interval between scrums. The cost is more procesing of information on shorter intervals but this might be more efficient than using slacks or the split of tasks to self contained groups. Scoping of data flow is essential because the decision makers must be presented with the data needed for decisions. In many support organisations there is an existing tool such as HP service desk or similar databases which provides the data needed for decisions. Formalization is used for information because it permits large quantities of incidents to be handled with a few number of attributes and makes it easy foir decision makers to get an overview of all the incidents. Formalization also has it’s costs. First you need to train those who forward you the incidents to create the incidents in the pre determined forms and if the endusers who is creating the incidents are being presented with several different forms depending on system they will get confused. The formalization or disciplining of end users to create incidents will in many cases secure the support team with the information nessecary to solve the incident without having the need to contact the enduser again. The more information loops used for solving an incident the longer process time. The capacity of the decision mechanism. Here the use of groups for decision making not only effects the quality of the decision but also the motivation for implementing the decisions. The support groups can have a decision manager such as a scrum master or incident manager who selects the incidents according to pre determined factors such as number of users affected, production affected, economical consequences, segregation affected. The investment strategy is to collect information at the point of origin, at appropriate time to the correct places in the hierarchy. The number of incident might very well be the same, but the tolerance of this system for handling different incidents is larger and therefore the need for management to be involved in exemptions is reduced. The other method for handling more information is the investment in lateral relations. This method cuts across the line of authority and focus on the resources needed to solve a specific task or incident. This method moves the decision making down to where the information exists rather than bringing it up to higher level managements. The simplest form of lateral relations is when a person from one group contacts one from another group who shares an incident and they together solve the problem. In some cases the communication between the groups becomes so large that the organisation needs an liason role added. This could in the case of SAP be the test of waves where there is a need for unit test, integration test and regression test. Here all the supporting groups are needed in solving the goal and the set up of a test manager is relevant. The use of lateral processes can be formal and informal organizations. These informal processes arise spontaneousely and are the processes through which most organizations accomplish their workdespite the formally designed structure. The informal processes are nessecary and inevitable but their use can be highly improved when taken into account when the formal processes are constructed. Also one of the main reason for the informal processes arising is the human nature of seeking contact face to face instead of having to communicate through system messages. But the informal processes needs the structure of the formal processes to make joint global decisions. Thus as uncertainty increases the organization will adopt these lateral mechanisms from direct contact between two participant to the creation of a matrix organization. The direct contact is the simplest and least costly of the lateral relationship. If the incidents can be resolved in this manner the number of exemptions brought to a decision point is reduced. The direct contact is highly effective and the organization can encourage the employees to this kind of behaviour through reward mechanisms. In most cases many will find the face to face contact a reward in itself. But the use of direct contact must be handled with care and should only be used for exemptions. If the supporting structure is overwhelmed by direct contacts because the customers or related IT groups find this to be the way to get things done then the supporting members can be overloaded with direct and informal contacts which influence the working time available. Liaison roles. If the direct contact becomes to intense it influence the time used at solving the incidents and in this case the use of liason roles can be used. Liaison role or patterns can be set up between two supporting groups where the interaction is becomming more and more increased for solving incidents. The liaison role is on a certain frequency to meet between the parties and prioritise incidents and tasks. Project groups. If there is a larger need for cooperation between two or several groups the use of task forces or project groups can be established. This is teh case when new projects is going to be implemented. In this case the relevant members for solving the task is  created for a period of time where the need for coordinating tasks between several departments is needed such as when a new reward system is being implemented in SAP ECM. Here there will be members from HR department, members from the SAP HCM application group and members from user administration. The use of the matrix organisation where the employee has a functional relation with a manager and a relation to a workgroup with e.g. A project manager.  The matrix is a consequence of extreme use of lateral relations where even the lateral dimension of the organisation incorporates hirarchical levels for decisions. Making lateral processses effective. The use of group decisions most be considered. Who should participate, which functions from which hierarchical levels, should they be part time or full time members and what kind of people should be choosen? The degree to which participants are willing to commit themselves to the teams tasks depends on the degree to which the team work will satisfy the individuals professional needs. The manager who will have to assign one of his members to the team should choose the one with interest for the task of fulfilling the task coordinated by the team.  Some of the team must also consist of managers But the problem with more and more decision made on the lower levels is the problem of leadership arise. The other problem is a greater amount of managerial time must be spent by the groups who is supposed to handle incidents + overheads of added jobs such as an liason manager. Choice of strategy. The choice of strategy or combination of strategies is off course a matter of the organisations context and which strategy proves to be most cost effective. The organization must adopt a strategy to cope with the increased uncertainty otherwise the choice will automatical be a reduction in performance for customers. Less incidents are handled, increased handling time for incidents. The choice of an support organization depends on many factors as described in this framework delivered by Jay Galbraith. Many attempt has been made to optimize the support through outsourcing, shared service centers but the main factor is to analyse your environment for the support organization and then align your support organization with those department and groups you are related with.
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11: SAP HCM transit position in Om as DMZ for transfer activity
12: SAP HR structural authorization for multiple parts of the organisation.
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15: Enterprice, personnel and organisational structures in SAP HCM
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21: Identity management with the use of SAP HCM attributes
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23: master_derived_composite_sap_roles.htm
24: Standard tools for identifying SAP HCM authorization issues
25: Enhance the layout of PPOME and PPOSE the organisational structure
26: Enhance the existing PD model and use it for personnel development
27: To be structural restricted or not to be... thats the question
28: Automate your SAP solution and avoid errors and business break downs
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